by A. G. Konheim, M. H. Mack, R. K. McNeill, B. Tuckerman, G. Waldbaum
Cryptographic methods of data protection have taken on new importance as computers have become faster and as strong cryptographic algorithms, such as the Data Encryption Standard (DES), have become available. But a standard encipherment technique is only the first step in applying cryptography in a computing center. This paper discusses the Information Protection System (IPS), a set of cryptographic application programs designed to use the DES algorithm in a working computing center. In designing IPS, several important augmentations of DES were formulated. IPS was first implemented to help increase computing-center security at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center and is now widely installed at other IBM locations. IPS is not an IBM product and is not available for use outside IBM, but many cryptographic techniques in IPS were incorporated into the IBM cryptographic products announced in 1977.