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IBM Journal of Research and Development  
Volume 26, Number 5, Page 546 (1982)
Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology
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Oxygen Incorporation and Precipitation in Czochralski-Grown Silicon

by A. Murgai, W. J. Patrick, J. Combronde, J. C. Felix
Oxygen incorporation is examined for growth of large-diameter (80-130 mm) silicon single crystals by the Czochralski method. The primary growth parameters affecting the oxygen concentration in the crystals are shown to be the crystal-melt interface position within the hot zone and the rate of crucible rotation used. Tight control of the oxygen concentration [±1.5 parts per million atomic (ppma) in the range of 25-40 ppma (ASTM)] has been reproducibly attained by programmed variation of these growth parameters. The attainable oxygen concentrations may be extended over a wider range (20-45 ppma) through slight modifications of the hot zones. Wafers from the uniform-oxygen-concentration crystals are subjected to single-step and two-step annealing procedures (700-1100°C) for oxygen precipitation studies. The rate of precipitation is shown to depend on the initial oxygen content and on the number of initially unpopulated nucleation sites present.
Related Subjects: Chemistry and chemical engineering; Manufacturing; Materials; Semiconductor technology