Several primitives for transaction processing systems are developed using the notations of Communicating Sequential Processes. The approach taken is to capture each requirement separately, in the simplest possible context: The specification is then the conjunction of all these requirements. As each is developed as a predicate over traces of the observable events in the system, it is also implemented as a simple communicating process; the implementation of the entire system is then merely the parallel composition of these processes. The laws of CSP are then used to transform the system to achieve the required degree of concurrency, to make it suitable for execution in a multiple-tasking system, for example. Finally, there is a discussion of how state-based systems may be developed using this approach together with some appropriate notation for specifying and refining data structures and operations upon them and of how the system may be implemented. This work is intended as a case study in the use of CSP.