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IBM Journal of Research and Development  
Volume 32, Number 1, Page 137 (1988)
Basic Concepts in Quantum and Stochastic T...
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Symmetry and transport in disordered systems

by J. Pendry
The transfer matrix for a disordered system enables averages of integer powers of the resistance to be found, RN; application of the symmetric group generalizes this formula to fractional and negative N, providing a powerful tool for the study of transport. Consequences for fluctuations in resistance, 1/f noise, and frequency response are discussed, as well as a new sort of state, of fractal dimension 1/2, which is responsible for transport in localized systems.
Related Subjects: Carrier transport in small structures; Mesoscopic phenomena; Physics, solid state; Quantum theory and effects